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Chapter 6

Liquid surfaces and interfaces

Surface and interfacial tensions are real tensions exerted at liquid surfaces. They are created by intermolecular forces of attraction. Methods of measurement are described. Capillary phenomena include spreading, adhesion, and coalescence of liquid drops. The intense curvature of small drops introduces effects such as increased vapor pressure, increased rates of evaporation, increased solubility, Ostwald ripening, and capillary flow. Surface-tension gradients create Marangoni flow, which appears in various contexts.

Key Words: adhesion, coalescence, cohesion, emersion, encapsulation, interfacial tension, Marangoni flow, Ostwald ripening, pendent drop, sessile drop, spreading, surface tension


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