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Chapter 23


The morphology of bubble clusters and the geometry of soap films are demonstrated. The equation of state of foam is derived and how it is applied to measure foam stability is shown. Theories of foam stability are described. Applications may require either greater foam stability or the elimination of undesired foam. Mechanical, thermal, and chemical methods to alleviate, destroy, or inhibit foam are described, The mechanisms of these antifoam measures are give in detail. Apparatus to measure the rheology of surface films and of foam stability is shown and directions given.

Key Words: antifoam, black films, defoamer, evanescent foam, foam booster, foam drainage, foam equation of state, foam flooding, foam geometry, foam inhibition, foam morphology, foam stability, gelatinous film, Gibbs angle, Gibbs elasticity, Gibbs-Marangoni effect, lamellae elasticity, Marangoni elasticity, minimum surfaces, PDMS antifoam, Plateau border, Plateau’s laws, polyhedral foam, profoamers, Ross-Nishioka effect, silicone antifoam, spheroidal foam, surface rheology, surface skin, surface tension gradient, synthetic lubricants, US proof scale









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