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Chapter 16

The Relation of Capillarity to Phase Diagrams

Surface activity of solutions is associated with certain features of phase diagrams of multicomponent systems. This surface activity is easily recognized by the stability of bubbles, which implies a surface-tension gradient and hence lowering of surface tension. The effect is produced in systems of partially miscible solutions. It occurs near the limits of solubility and suggests that segregation of a component occurs at the surface of a solution prior to its separation as a bulk phase. The surface-active component is the one with the lowest surface tension. A calculation based on regular-solution theory provides a theoretical confirmation of the observed effect.

Key Words: capillarity, cosorption lines, critical point, isaphroic lines, phase diagram, regular solution








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