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Chapter 13

Aqueous Solutions of Surface-Active Solutes

The physical properties of aqueous solutions of surface-active solutes include adsorption and spontaneous molecular association (micellization). Adsorption of solute at any interface in contact with such solutions results when a large lipophile, such as a hydrocarbon chain, is brought into aqueous solution. Near the space that it occupies the polyhydrol structure of water is disturbed, affecting its entropy. This result is sometimes called the hydrophobic effect. The results are independent equilibria established between adsorbed and dissolved solute and between dissolved and associated solute (micelles).
Adsorption of solute at the air/solution surface lowers the surface tension and adsorption of solute at an aqueous/oil interface lowers the interfacial tension. Adsorption of solute at the aqueous/solid interface deflocculates clumps of solid particles.

Key Words: adsorption, critical micelle concentration (CMC), Ferguson effect, Krafft point, liquid crystal, Lundelius rule, micelle, microemulsion, middle soap, neat soap, self-assembly, solubilization







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