Synthetic surface-active solutes, ionic and non-ionic, are classified, ranging from predominantly lipophilic to predominantly hydrophilic, with those in between typified in terms of hydrophile-lipophile balance. In aqueous solutions, adsorption of these large ions chiefly accounts for charges conferred on emulsion drops or solid particles. Surfactants in nonpolar solutions require separate treatment. (See Chapter 14).
Key Words: amphiphile, amphiphilic, anionic, cationic, cloud point, coemulsifier,
emulsifier, HLB, hydrophile, hydrophilic, lipophile, lipophilic, nonionic,
phase-inversion temperature (PIT), surfactant, surface-active solute
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